55,60 These viruses are commonly detected in the diseased periodontium. Reporting on samples from more than 20 studies, Slots65 showed that in cases of aggressive periodontitis the median prevalence of cytomegalovirus, Epstein- Barr virus, and herpes simplex virus type 1 is 42%, 48%, and 78%, respectively.
Out of these CMV and EBV are the most commonly discussed viruses in relation to periodontal disease and more than 1 million genome copies have been isolated from a single site of infection . These viruses infect and impair polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), macrophages and lymphocytes.
Overview. Periodontal (gum) disease is an infection of the tissues that hold your teeth in place. It's typically caused by poor brushing and flossing habits that allow plaque—a sticky film of bacteria—to build up on the teeth and harden.
Genetics. Certain medicines that cause dry mouth or gum changes. Conditions that lower immunity, such as leukemia, HIV / AIDS and cancer treatment. Certain diseases, such as diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn's disease.
Because the condition attacks the salivary glands and leads to a dry mouth, Sjögren's syndrome causes an increased risk for cavities, gum disease and ulcers.
Periodontal diseases can predispose individuals to several systemic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, oral and colorectal cancer, gastrointestinal diseases, respiratory tract infection and pneumonia, adverse pregnancy outcomes, diabetes and insulin resistance, and Alzheimer's disease.
Periodontitis is considered an autoimmune disease because your body's immune system is attacking your own tissues due to the ongoing chronic inflammation.
In fact, a recent study revealed that people with low levels of vitamin B12 in their blood were not only more likely to suffer from periodontitis, but were also more likely to experience severe periodontitis symptoms, such as greater gum pocket depth, than those with higher levels of this vitamin.
Gingivitis and Gum Disease
Inflammation in the gums is linked to several different autoimmune disorders, including lupus, Crohn's disease, and scleroderma, among others.
Improve your oral hygiene- One of the most important things you can do to reverse periodontal disease is to improve your oral hygiene. Be sure to brush twice a day and floss once a day. Consider using an antibacterial mouthwash.
Tetracycline antibiotics – Antibiotics which include tetracycline hydrochloride, doxycycline, and minocycline are the primary drugs used in periodontal treatment.
Bacteria in the mouth infect tissue surrounding the tooth, causing inflammation around the tooth leading to periodontal disease. When bacteria stay on the teeth long enough, they form a film called plaque, which eventually hardens to tartar, also called calculus.
COVID-19 is associated with periodontitis prevalence, through a series of possible mechanisms including local and systemic inflammatory responses. Further studies should investigate whether the maintenance of periodontal health may be a factor in the reduction of the severity of COVID-19 infections.
These genera include, but are not limited to, Treponema, Bacteroides, Porphyromonas, Prevotella, Capnocytophaga, Peptostreptococcus, Fusobacterium, Actinobacillus, and Eikenella. Certain periodontal bacteria are often found together in subgingival plaque samples.
Folic acid: Ensures development of normal gum tissue. It binds to endotoxins (byproducts of bacteria) and renders them neutral. It can prevent periodontal disease, and it can help in healing if taken during periodontal treatment. It can even prevent re-occurrence if taken after periodontal treatment.
An analysis of the literature shows that vitamin D plays a significant role in maintaining healthy periodontal and jaw bone tissues, alleviating inflammation processes, stimulating post-operative healing of periodontal tissues and the recovery of clinical parameters.
While there is no cure for periodontitis, the disease can be controlled and reversed with proper treatment. In most cases, gum disease can be treated successfully with professional cleanings and at-home care. However, in some cases, surgery may be necessary to restore the health of your gums.
Almost half, 47.2%, of all adults aged 30 years and older have some form of gum disease. Gum disease increases with age. 70.1% of adults 65 years and older have periodontal disease.
It's challenging to imagine infected gums in your mouth can have a dramatic impact on different parts of your body, including your heart, lungs, bones, blood sugar levels, and fetal development. In addition, the bacteria from your gums can impact your body in different ways.
Periodontitis has been an associated with a number of other systemic diseases including respiratory disease, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, cognitive impairment, obesity, metabolic syndrome and cancer.
The long-term inflammation caused by untreated periodontal disease can lead to a number of increased health risks, including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and an increased risk of heart disease, heart attacks, and strokes.
Antibiotics. Topical or oral antibiotics can help control bacterial infection. Topical antibiotics can include antibiotic mouth rinses or putting gel containing an antibiotic into gum pockets. Sometimes oral antibiotics are needed to get of bacteria that cause infections.
Periodontal disease causes tooth loss if not treated early, and advanced periodontitis can lead to a decline in chewing ability, word pronunciation, and aesthetic function.