Because cystic fibrosis is an inherited disorder, it runs in families, so family history is a risk factor. Although CF occurs in all races, it's most common in white people of Northern European ancestry.
The disease occurs mostly in whites whose ancestors came from northern Europe, although it affects all races and ethnic groups. Accordingly, it is less common in African Americans, Native Americans, and Asian Americans. Approximately 2,500 babies are born with CF each year in the United States.
Males account for slightly more than 50 percent of all cases of cystic fibrosis (CF) but generally have better outcomes than females until about age 20. After that, men and women experience roughly equal outcomes for long-term survival. Still, males with CF tend to live an average of 2 years longer than females.
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a disease that is passed down through families. It is caused by a defective gene that makes the body produce abnormally thick and sticky fluid, called mucus. This mucus builds up in the breathing passages of the lungs and in the pancreas.
Early signs of CF include: Salty sweat; many parents notice a salty taste when kissing their child. Poor growth and weight gain (failure to thrive) Constant coughing and wheezing.
Symptoms in teens & adults
Malnutrition, low weight, eating fatigue, pancreatic issues, liver disease, rectal prolapse, GERD, gas, constipation, gallstones, dehydration. CF-related diabetes (CFRD) may occur when the pancreas is unable to release insulin due to the clogging from thick mucus.
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease. This means that CF is inherited. A child will be born with CF only if two CF genes are inherited - one from the mother and one from the father. A person who has only one CF gene is healthy and said to be a "carrier" of the disease.
Genetics and Diagnosis
Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disease. People with CF have inherited two copies of the defective CF gene — one copy from each parent. Both parents must have at least one copy of the defective gene.
CF cannot be prevented. However, genetic testing should be performed for couples who have CF or have relatives with the disease. Genetic testing can determine a child's risk of CF by testing samples of blood or saliva from each parent.
While most cystic fibrosis patients are diagnosed by the time they are two years old, and others are diagnosed in adulthood.
In Australia, one in 2,500 babies are born with CF, that's one every four days. On average one in 25 people carry the CF gene and most are unaware that they are carriers.
A person with one non-functional copy of the gene is a carrier. Carriers for CF have no symptoms, but can pass the non-functioning gene on to their children. An individual must inherit two non-functioning CF genes – one from each parent – to have CF.
It is estimated that approximately 1 in 35 Americans is a carrier of the CFTR gene mutation, which means more than 10 million Americans are cystic fibrosis carriers.
Cystic fibrosis is inherited. This means it is passed down from parent to child through the genes. Your baby inherited a normal CF gene (N) from one parent, and a mutation of a CF gene (C) from the other parent. This means at least one parent (mother or father) is also a CF carrier.
Cystic fibrosis may rarely be diagnosed based on ultrasound findings antenatally due to echogenic bowel. This can be noted at any point in the pregnancy, although it is most commonly seen in the second trimester. Upon sonographic evaluation the bowel, with the gain at the lowest level, appears as bright as bone.
However, in order for a child to inherit CF, he or she must receive an altered CF gene from both parents. A child cannot inherit CF when only 1 parent is a carrier. People with CF are also carriers, since they “carry” 2 altered CF genes. They will pass on an altered CF gene to each of their children.
Cystic fibrosis is a common genetic disease within the white population in the United States. The disease occurs in 1 in 2,500 to 3,500 white newborns. Cystic fibrosis is less common in other ethnic groups, affecting about 1 in 17,000 African Americans and 1 in 31,000 Asian Americans.
CF is inherited in a recessive manner, which means both parents must be carriers to have an affected child. A person who has no family history of CF and no children with CF can still be a CF carrier.
Does a lung transplant cure cystic fibrosis? No. Cystic fibrosis is a genetic condition so even though the transplanted lungs will not have CF and will never develop it, the rest of the person's body will continue to have cystic fibrosis.
However, not every case of CF presents with meconium ileus in the newborn, failure to thrive, or severe lung disease. Atypical CF is characterized by a milder form of the disease usually remaining undiagnosed for years, even into late adulthood .
Symptoms tend to start in early childhood, but sometimes they can develop soon after birth and very occasionally they may not be obvious until adulthood. Nowadays, cystic fibrosis is usually diagnosed before symptoms appear, through screening tests carried out soon after birth.
Some people may not experience symptoms until their teenage years or adulthood. People who are not diagnosed until adulthood usually have milder disease and are more likely to have atypical symptoms, such as recurring bouts of an inflamed pancreas (pancreatitis), infertility and recurring pneumonia.