Class 4 shock is the most severe case with acute blood loss of over 2000 mL (or over 40% total blood volume). The patient's heart rate will be tachycardic, over 140 bpm, with nonpalpable or thready peripheral pulses.
Class 3: Volume loss from 30% to 40% of total blood volume, from 1500 mL to 2000 mL. A significant drop in blood pressure and changes in mental status occurs. Heart rate and respiratory rate are significantly elevated (more than 120 BPM). Urine output declines.
They include the initial stage, the compensatory stage, the progressive stage, and the refractory stage.
There are mainly four broad categories of shock: distributive, hypovolemic, cardiogenic, and obstructive.
There are four stages of shock (in order): initial, compensatory, progressive, and refractory. The patient's body is experiencing major signs and symptoms of shock.
There are four subtypes of shock with differing underlying causes and symptoms: hypovolemic, cardiogenic, obstructive, and distributive. Distributive shock can be further divided into septic, anaphylaxis, and neurogenic shock.
The severity of electrical shock or electrocution injuries usually depends on three things: (1) the path the current travels in and through the body, (2) the amount of voltage (high-voltage versus low-voltage), and (3) the type of current (alternating current or AC versus direct current or DC).
Finally, if Stage III of shock is reached, it is termed “irreversible,” as the body can no longer keep up with its attempts to maintain blood flow to its most vital organs. Heart rate and breathing remain high until crashing, while blood pressure finally drops very low.
If not treated immediately, cardiogenic shock can lead to death. Another serious complication is damage to your liver, kidneys or other organs from lack of oxygen, which can be permanent.
Septic shock, a form of distributive shock, is the most common form of shock among patients in the ICU, followed by cardiogenic and hypovolemic shock; obstructive shock is relatively rare (Figure 1B and 1C).
Cardiogenic shock is low blood pressure that lasts for more than 30 minutes, often requiring the use of mechanical devices to sustain it at a safe level. The condition results in inadequate circulation of blood throughout the body.
There are four stages of hypovolemic shock: Loss of up to 750 cubic centimeters (cc) or milliliters (mL) of blood, up to 15% of your total volume. Your blood vessels narrow slightly to keep blood pressure up. Your heart rate is normal, and your body makes as much urine as usual.
Shock can be caused by anything that reduces the flow of blood, such as: severe internal or external bleeding. heart problems, such as a heart attack, or heart failure. loss of body fluids, from dehydration, diarrhoea, vomiting, or burns.
There are four major types of shock, each of which can be caused by a number of different events.
Perfusion means oxygen and nutrients delivery via blood flow. There are practically four categories of shock: Cardiogenic (CS), hemorrhagic (HS) and inflammatory (IS), which can be subdivided in septic (SS) and toxic shock (TS).
Hypovolemic shock is an emergency condition in which severe blood or other fluid loss makes the heart unable to pump enough blood to the body. This type of shock can cause many organs to stop working.
Septic shock, a form of distributive shock, is the most common form of shock among patients admitted to the intensive care unit, followed by cardiogenic and hypovolemic shock; obstructive shock is rare [1,2].
RNCHAMPS (pronounced "R, N, champs") is a mnemonic acronym used to recall the types of shock. The mnemonic is alternately known as CRAMPS NH ("Cramps, New Hampshire") or NH-CRAMPS ("New Hampshire cramps").