The most widely reported triggers of anaphylaxis are: insect stings – particularly wasp and bee stings. peanuts and tree nuts. other types of foods – such as milk and seafood.
Symptoms of anaphylaxis
breathing difficulties – such as fast, shallow breathing. wheezing. a fast heartbeat. clammy skin.
There are four recognized temporal patterns of anaphylaxis: uniphasic, protracted, refractory, and biphasic [1,2]. In each pattern, symptoms must fulfill the diagnostic criteria for anaphylaxis (figure 1).
Definition of Anaphylaxis
Most cases are mild but any anaphylaxis has the potential to become life-threatening. Anaphylaxis develops rapidly, usually reaching peak severity within 5 to 30 minutes, and may, rarely, last for several days.
Anaphylaxis symptoms usually occur within minutes of exposure to an allergen. Sometimes, however, anaphylaxis can occur a half-hour or longer after exposure. In rare cases, anaphylaxis may be delayed for hours.
The early symptoms may be mild, such as a runny nose, a skin rash or a “strange feeling.” These symptoms can quickly lead to more serious problems, including: Trouble breathing. Hives or swelling. Tightness of the throat.
First-time exposure may produce only a mild reaction. Repeated exposures may lead to more serious reactions. Once a person has had an exposure or an allergic reaction (is sensitized), even a very limited exposure to a very small amount of allergen can trigger a severe reaction.
The release of histamine and immunoglobulin E antibodies, as well as an inflammatory response, can cause itching, swelling, narrowing of the airways, and tiredness. Also, allergic reactions can cause symptoms such as congestion, coughing, and sneezing. These can make sleep difficult, contributing to tiredness.
Signs and symptoms may be mild at first, but can rapidly worsen. A small number of people suddenly develop signs and symptoms of a severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) without any signs of a mild to moderate allergic reaction. Signs of a mild to moderate allergic reaction include: swelling of lips, face, eyes.
Have the person lie face up and be still. Loosen tight clothing and cover the person with a blanket. Don't give the person anything to drink. If there's vomiting or bleeding from the mouth, turn the person to the side to prevent choking.
Onset of anaphylaxis to stings or allergen injections is usually rapid: 70% begin in < 20 minutes and 90% in < 40 minutes. Food/ingestant anaphylaxis may have slower onset or slow progression. Rapid onset is associated with greater severity.
throat tightness or feeling like the throat or airways are closing. hoarseness or trouble speaking. wheezing or cough. nasal stuffiness.
Anaphylaxis is a severe, life-threatening, generalized or systemic rapid-onset hypersensitivity reaction (allergic or nonallergic). Anaphylactic shock is a severe rapidly progressing anaphylactic reaction (anaphylaxis) resulting in a life-threatening drop in blood pressure.
Common disorders that mimic anaphylaxis include acute generalized urticaria, acute angioedema, acute asthma exacerbations, syncope (faint), and panic attacks or acute anxiety (table 3).
Epinephrine is the preferred medication for the treatment of anaphylaxis.
Experiencing anaphylaxis can sometimes result in longer-term increased anxiety, or lead to post-traumatic stress. It may cause a feeling of “not knowing what is safe anymore”. This can result in avoidance of food or situations that everyone knows is safe but cause too much anxiety.
If a patient has a severe allergy or is under a lot of stress, then this same response can be amplified, resulting in more severe symptoms ranging from trouble breathing, anaphylactic shock or possibly even death.
Histamines, the substances released by the body during an allergic reaction, cause the blood vessels to expand, which in turn causes a dangerous drop in blood pressure. Fluid can leak into the lungs, causing swelling (pulmonary edema). Anaphylaxis can also cause heart rhythm disturbances.
The most severe allergic reaction is anaphylaxis — a life-threatening whole-body allergic reaction that can impair your breathing, cause a dramatic drop in your blood pressure and affect your heart rate. Anaphylaxis can come on within minutes of exposure to the trigger food.
In some people, a food allergy can trigger a severe allergic reaction called anaphylaxis. This can cause life-threatening signs and symptoms, including: Constriction and tightening of the airways. A swollen throat or the sensation of a lump in your throat that makes it difficult to breathe.
Peanuts are one of the most common cause of food-related allergy death. They can trigger anaphylaxis -- a reaction that may be fatal if not treated right away. Symptoms usually start within minutes of exposure.
"If you have a simple rash, and you're itching, you can probably go to urgent care. But if you have a rash and vomiting, you should go to the ER." An anaphylactic allergic reaction can be life-threatening and requires immediate medical treatment.
However, antihistamines such as diphenhydramine (Benadryl) or cetirizine (Zyrtec), glucocorticoids like prednisone, or a combination, may be used in addition to epinephrine in some cases of anaphylaxis, after epinephrine is administered.
Abstract. The slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis (SRS-A) belongs to a group of substances which produce a slow progressive and sustained contraction of some smooth muscles. It is released by the interaction of the antigen with certain antibodies; in humans through the interaction with the IgE or reagine.