Myotonic muscular dystrophy (MMD) is a complex disease that affects many systems in the body and brain. In type 1 MMD, the genetic defect can vary in size, and in general, the bigger the genetic defect, the sooner symptoms develop and the worse they are.
Muscular dystrophy is a progressive disease of muscle weakness, muscle atrophy and cardiac dysfunction. Patients afflicted with muscular dystrophy exhibit autonomic dysfunction along with cognitive impairment, severe depression, sadness, and anxiety.
Although MD can affect several body tissues and organs, it most prominently affects the integrity of muscle fibers. The disease causes: Muscle degeneration. Progressive weakness.
Muscular dystrophy is a rare type of neuromuscular disease, a group of conditions affecting certain nerves and muscles.
Muscular dystrophy (MD) is a group of rare diseases that cause muscles to weaken and deteriorate. MD affects the voluntary muscles that control movement in the arms, legs, and trunk.
The average lifespan for Duchenne muscular dystrophy is 18 to 25 years. With early treatment, it can reach 30 years. But recent technological advances have made it possible to improve treatment. As a result, people living with the disease live better and longer.
DM can cause mental fatigue, daytime sleepiness, forgetfulness, confusion or “brain fog”, all related to altered brain activity. However, there is some good news – the number of nerve cells in the brains of people with DM is nearly normal.
People with muscular dystrophy should be monitored throughout their lives. Their care team should include a neurologist with expertise in neuromuscular diseases, a physical medicine and rehabilitation specialist, and physical and occupational therapists.
The diseases most frequently mistaken for muscular dystrophy were polymyositis and the syndrome of "benign hypotonia." Polymyositis, with its protean manifestations and variable course, may mimic all of the forms of muscular dystrophy so closely that differentiation becomes especially difficult.
Duchenne MD (DMD)
DMD is the most common and severe form of MD among children, and it accounts for approximately half of MD cases. DMD occurs mostly in boys, usually between 3 and 5 years of age, and progresses rapidly.
Stage 2: Late ambulatory stage
As the disease progresses, muscle weakness and wasting (atrophy) start to affect the lower legs, forearms, neck, and trunk. Difficulty walking becomes more pronounced at this stage and is often accompanied by fatigue when walking long distances.
The literature suggests patients with OPMD can present with a broad psychopathological spectrum including cognitive decline and dementia.
Background Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is a multisystemic disease. The central nervous system is affected by cognitive, affective, and personality disturbances.
Muscular dystrophies are a group of muscle diseases caused by mutations in a person's genes. Over time, muscle weakness decreases mobility, making everyday tasks difficult.
What causes muscular dystrophy (MD)? Most cases of MD are caused by gene mutations (changes in the DNA sequence) that affect muscle proteins. The mutations are usually inherited, but in some cases they occur spontaneously. These spontaneous mutations can then be inherited by an affected person's offspring.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), a much milder form of the disease where the age of onset can sometimes be as late as the third or fourth decade of life, are caused by mutations in the same X-linked gene, a 14 kilobase (kb) transcript which is spread over more than 2 megabases of ...
The main types are: Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Becker muscular dystrophy. congenital muscular dystrophy.
Different types of muscular dystrophy are caused by different genetic mutations, and a proper diagnosis can involve a range of tests, such as blood tests, functional tests, muscle biopsies, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) affects the muscles in the eyes (ocular) and the throat (pharyngeal). Someone with OPMD will usually start to experience symptoms in their 40's or 50's.
Muscular dystrophy (MD) refers to a group of inherited genetic muscle conditions. MD causes progressive muscle weakness and muscle wasting because of the degeneration (deterioration) of muscle cells. This means it gets worse over time.
End stage cardio-respiratory failure is the most common cause of death in DMD. Young unexpected deaths do still occur. Vigilance is needed for nutritional, respiratory and cardiac failure at any age.
DMD leads to loss of ambulation before adolescence and, without treatment, life expectancy does not reach beyond late teens . The two most common causes of death in DMD are respiratory and cardiac failure [9,10,11].
Is muscular dystrophy always fatal? Muscular dystrophy is not always fatal. Each type of muscular dystrophy affects a person's life expectancy differently. Some people live a normal life with muscular dystrophy while others will live for a shorter time than average.